Childhood Obesity

Thank you, Dr. Greene, for this service. You help me so much with some problems of my child. But now I would like to know about the problem of obesity in my four year old girl. Her weight is 33 kg and her height is 1.09 m.
Dolores A. de Ortega – Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico

Dr. Greene’s Answer:

Obesity, or over-nutrition, is the generalized accumulation of fat both beneath the skin and throughout the body. Some children are big, or stocky, because they have large skeletal frames. They are not obese. There are general guidelines for appropriate weight for a given height, but these are only general guidelines.

For a girl who is 1.09 meters tall (43 inches), the average weight is 18kg (40lbs). Anywhere between 15-22kg (33-46lbs) would be considered healthy. Your daughter’s 33kg (72lbs.) are significantly outside this range.

Obesity is usually caused by an individual’s eating more food than is necessary for him or her. Less activity than the individual needs can also cause obesity, but this is less common in children. Whatever the cause, certain children inherit a genetic predisposition to obesity. They may eat the same diets as thinner children, but store more of the calories as fat.

The body stores new fat either by increasing the number of fat cells or by increasing the size of existing cells. It is particularly important to control childhood obesity since new fat cells are primarily formed during childhood. Each year of adding these extra fat cells makes adult obesity more difficult to fight.

Overweight children are not gluttonous or lazy. In fact, many studies have shown that obese children do not eat more calories than their peers. And by actually measuring caloric expenditure using the double-labeled water method, investigators have shown that obese children actually expend more energy than their non-obese counterparts. Obese children need less food and more activity than their peers.

A variety of hormonal disorders, including problems with insulin, hypothalamic hormones, and pituitary hormones, can cause severe obesity. There are also a number of rare inherited syndromes (such as Laurence-Moon-Biedl, Prader-Willi, and Cushing) that produce obesity. If a child’s height is appropriate or advanced for her age (like your daughter’s), and if a child has a strong family history of obsesity, one of these underlying medical conditions is extremely unlikely. On the other hand, an obese child with slow height growth should certainly be evaluated.

As childhood obesity has become more common, we are seeing more and more children with hypertension (high blood pressure) and with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. For decades, we have seen that these diseases cause serious chronic medical problems as adults – we are now seeing these chronic problems in children as well! While there is still some controversy surrounding when to screen and treat children for high blood pressure and high cholesterol, I would suggest that all parents of overweight children discuss this issue with their pediatrician.

Obesity is very difficult to treat, since it involves permanently changing basic eating and exercise habits. Successes almost always involve changing the whole family’s habits to ones appropriate for the obese child. As we all know, healthy eating and exercise habits are good for us all! Cutting excess intake is best achieved by first keeping a careful record of food consumed, to identify particularly high fat or high calorie problem areas in the diet. The entire family must learn what fat is and what foods are high in fat (such as cheese, butter, margarine, nuts and nut-butters, oil, red meat, fried foods, most processed fast foods or snack foods, etc., etc.). Instead, whole fruit, whole vegetables, and whole grains should make up the bulk of the diet. Whatever the daily activity level of the family, it should be modestly increased.

Most families are not able to make these lasting changes on their own, and will benefit from meeting with an independent party at least once a week for 12 weeks. Ideally this outside individual would be a nutritionist or an expert in weight management, but even a committed friend would do. In many cities pediatric weight management programs such as Shapedown are available, and are very effective. Whatever the source, monitoring should continue at least monthly for the remainder of the first year, and then every 3 to 4 months until the new habits have become very deeply ingrained.

Note: Shapedown is a program that was started at the University of California at San Francisco. You can obtain information about that program or similar programs in other areas by calling (415) 453-8886 or by visiting

Stanford University Hospital also has a program called the Packard Pediatric Weight Control Program. They can be reached at (650) 725-4424 or by visiting:

Dr. Alan Greene

As a father of four himself, Dr. Greene has devoted himself to freely giving real answers to parents' real questions -- from questions about those all too common childhood conditions to those that address the most recent and rare pediatric illnesses. His answers combine cutting edge science, practical wisdom, warm empathy, and a deep respect for parents, children, and the environment. He is also an electrifying public speaker, and has personally touched many during his talks in North America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

Dr. Greene is a graduate of Princeton University and the University of California at San Francisco. Upon completion of his pediatric residency program at Children's Hospital Medical Center of Northern California he served as Chief Resident. He entered primary care pediatrics in January 1993.

Dr. Greene is the Past President of The Organic Center and on the Board of Directors of Healthy Child Healthy World. He is a founding partner of the Collaborative on Health and the Environment. He also consults for the Environmental Working Group.

In 1995, he launched, cited by the AMA as “the pioneer physician Web site” on the Internet. His award-winning site has received over 80 million Unique Users from parents, concerned family members, students, and healthcare professionals. In addition to being the founder of, he is the Medical Director for HealthTap.

In 2010 Dr. Greene founded the WhiteOut Movement to change how babies in the United States are fed. In 2012 he founded TICC TOCC - Transitioning Immediate Cord Clamping To Optimal Cord Clamping. He is also the founder of KidGlyphs, a free iPhone app that provides a tool for young children to express themselves beyond their verbal skills while teaching them important language skills.

Dr. Greene is the Founding President of the Society for Participatory Medicine and has served as both President and Board Chair of Hi-Ethics (Health Internet Ethics. He is on the Board of Directors for Healthy Child Healthy World, The Lunchbox Project, and The Society for Participatory Medicine. He has also served as an advisor to URAC for both their inaugural and their updated health web site accreditation program. He is a founding member of the e-Patient Scholars Working Group, and a founding board member of the Center for Information Therapy.

Dr. Greene is a regular columnist for Parenting Magazine. He is also the Pediatric Expert for The People’s Pharmacy (as heard on NPR) and Healing Quest (seen on PBS stations). He was the original Pediatric Expert for both Yahoo! and iVillage.

Dr. Greene is the author of Feeding Baby Green (Wiley, 2009), Raising Baby Green (Wiley, 2007), From First Kicks to First Steps (McGraw-Hill, 2004), The Parent's Complete Guide to Ear Infections (People's Medical Society, 1997), and a co-author of The A.D.A.M. Illustrated Family Health Guide (A.D.A.M., Inc., 2004). He is the medical expert for three additional books, The Parent's Soup A-to-Z Guide to Your New Baby, (Contemporary Books, 1998) The Parent's Soup A-to-Z Guide to Your Toddler, (Contemporary Books, 1999), and The Mother of All Baby Books, (Hungry Minds, Inc., 2002).

Dr. Greene is a frequent keynote speaker at important events such as Health 2.0 2011 held in San Diego, CA, IFOAM 2008 (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements), held in Modena Italy, the first European Internet health conference, held in Maastricht, the first International eHealth Association Conference, held in Jeddah, and the largest e-Healthcare World Conference, held in Las Vegas, and the first Green Power Baby Shower, held in Hollywood. Dr. Greene also appears frequently on TV, radio, websites, and in newspapers and magazines around the world, including such venues as the TODAY Show, Good Morning America, Fox and Friends, The Dr. Oz Show, CNN, ABC, CBS, and NBC network news, NPR, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, USA Today, Time Magazine, Parade, Parenting, Child, Baby Talk, Working Mother, Better Home's & Gardens, and the Reader's Digest.

Dr. Greene loves to think about challenging ideas, he enjoys being where nothing manmade can be seen, and he wears green socks.

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  1. Theresa

    I have a 8 year old almost 200lb very active daughter. I need help.


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