Baby Bottles & Cereal

Baby bottles and cereal may be recommended by well meaning friends, but should you do it? Is it best for baby? What do pediatricians recommend?

Question

I have heard different reviews about putting cereal in the bottle of an infant. Is it safe?

Dr. Greene’s Answer:

You’ve heard about it from friends, parents, and in-laws. You’ve seen it in Internet chat rooms and discussion boards:

“You’re so tired! You should put some cereal in your daughter’s bottle – then she’ll sleep through the night.”

“He’ll nap better.”

“Your son looks too skinny. You’re not feeding him enough. Add some cereal to the bottle – that’ll do the trick.”

“He still acts hungry? Try putting some cereal in the bottle. He’ll be much less fussy.”

“Spoon feeding is a hassle. Put it off as long as you can. Cereal in the bottle is quick, convenient, makes them sleep longer and cry less – what more could you want?”

Pediatricians Don’t Recommend Baby Bottles and Cereal

Your pediatrician says this is not wise (except as a treatment for reflux). Dietitians and nutritionists concur. Introducing solids before 4 months might cause food allergies. Your well-wishers discount these recommendations because cereal in the bottle worked wonders for their children!

Throughout most of human history children were exclusively breast fed for the early months. During the previous generation or two, when bottle-feeding became very popular, rice cereal was often put into the bottle at a very early age. What were the results?

Most children seemed to thrive. A small number of children, though, did not tolerate the addition, because their sucking and swallowing actions were not yet fully coordinated. They inhaled small amounts of the rice cereal into their lungs, which led to pulmonary problems.

Why Not?

I’m much more concerned about a subtler issue. Babies are born with a wonderful mechanism for knowing how much food they need. During the early months, they take their cues from the volume of what they drink. Adding cereal derails this mechanism. It forces them to take in deceptively large amounts of calories. It teaches them to overeat.

By starting with a spoon, resting between bites, and stopping when your child lets you know he’s full, you will be laying an excellent foundation for good eating habits throughout his life.

A major study looking for the causes of obesity found that short-circuiting young children’s self-regulation of how much they eat is a major cause of later obesity.1 Cereal in the bottle does just that.

Babies that are fed this way may appear to be unaffected – but those few weeks of added convenience may result in a lifetime of struggles with weight. This common practice may have contributed to our being the most obese generation in history.

Does it Work?

And here’s the biggest reason of all — it doesn’t even work. Scientists at the Cleveland Clinic studied the effect of cereal on sleep and found that adding the cereal did nothing at all to speed up the age of sleeping through the night. That first uninterrupted 6-hour stretch of sleep came no earlier in those who took cereal early.2

People swear otherwise. I suspect the reason is that kids do fall asleep a bit more quickly, and some babies may even go a bit longer between feedings. There is no scientific evidence, though, to support the claim that cereal in the bottle will help an infant increase total sleep or decrease crying.3

Drawing on the wisdom of experience and the latest scientific knowledge, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends against adding cereal to the bottle. It may be tempting after your 16th straight sleep-deprived night to cut a bigger hole in the feeding nipple to add rice cereal. But it won’t offer lasting help, and it may be giving your baby a lasting gift that both of you will regret.

References:
1 Birch LL, Fisher JO, The causes and health consequences of obesity in children and adolescents: development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics 1998 Mar; 101(3)
2 Macknin ML, Medendorp SV, Maier MC, Infant sleep and bedtime cereal. Am J Dis Child 1989 Sep; 143(9):1066-8
3 Hall RT, Infant feeding. Pediatr Rev – 2000 Jun; 21(6): 191-9.

 

Last medical review on: October 13, 2014
About the Author
Photo of Alan Greene MD
Dr. Greene is a practicing physician, author, national and international TEDx speaker, and global health advocate. He is a graduate of Princeton University and University of California San Francisco.
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I was raised that babies get a bit of pablum in their bottles at one month old. I slept as a baby much better. I also did this for my kids when i became a mother. my kids slept much better also. I have now been a foster parent to over 100 newborns, i give all of them pablum in a bottle at 1 month, and they all sleep very well. Whilst all my friends relatives babies never slept thru the night until 12 to 18 months.. mine slept thru @ 3 months… happy baby happy momma

Eat a better diet so your milk is more nutrient dense, my preference is similar to Weston A. Price (minus the dairy).

I am a mother of two(gave both children rice cereal) and of course my daughter is facing this issue with her pediatrician. I do agree that this has been something that has been done for years. Despite your articles on nutrition that you post for reference. Show me the blind study articles, where they have taken a large number of babies, 1/2 given cereal (bottle) and 1/2 not, that have followed these children into their adult lives to prove your theory of obesity. There simply have been no studies of infants to prove this point. Just another example of our text book medical doctors who swear children cant have a fever when they are teething. Yet most of us had fussy, low fever infants teething. Lets not forget our multitude of pediatricians who for years were over prescribing antibiotics to our children, where does it end. These doctors are not God and are just practicing medicine. My husband to is in the medical field, and like all professions some excel others in their medical skills by leaps and bounds. So shop around, they work for you, your interviewing them to take care of your infant. Interview your doctor!!

The “stand out” concern for me with adding cereal in a bottle is it can cause “pulmonary issues” and may lead to food allergies (if solids are offered too early). My mother always stated she practiced adding cereal to a bottle from a very early age with all of us and “we turned out pretty well”. I beg to differ, most of us have excessive food allergies, digestion issues… I love my mother and I understand this was common practice during her generation. But now that we know better… My thinking behind avoiding cereal in a bottle is why “RISK” a child’s life for a mere 1 or 2 additional hours of sleep? My line of work has given me the honor and privilege to work with many families (from all backgrounds, ethnicities…). I see and hear many different infant feeding practices. But what has impacted me the most has been 2 children who developed SEVERE pulmonary issues due to solids going into those little lungs. These babies parents were adding cereal and even other solids in a bottle which they aspirated into their lungs. SO MY QUESTION TO LOVING PARENTS IS…WHY WOULD YOU WANT TO RISK YOUR CHILD HEALTH TO SLEEP 1 OR 2 EXTRA HOURS? Don’t our little babies deserve our full attention? Parents will not lose sleep for the rest of their lives it is only but a short stage. Putting baby cereal or any solid for that matter in a bottle is playing “Russian roulette” with your baby’s health. Don’t we all love our children and want the best quality life for them?

Hi Rebecca,

I’m the co-founder of DrGreene.com and Dr. Greene’s wife.

So glad your kids don’t have weight issues. Agree on Little Debbie’s and chips. That’s a huge problem, as are soft drinks and the general lack of vegetables in kids’ diets.

There is a lot of science around not feeding babies rice cereal in their bottles or with a spoon. If you’re interested in the science, you can read about it here.

Best, @MsGreene
Note: I am the co-founder of DrGreene.com, but I am not Dr. Greene and I am not a doctor. Please keep that in mind when reading my comments and replies.

Your last name is Greene. Just sayin Mr Greene? Daughter, wife. Maybe? Anyway. I call BS on bottlefed rice. My son recently struggled to gain weight for boot camp joining the marines at 21. Maybe I should have feed him bottled rice again. All my kids had rice in their bottles. My mom taught me rice bottles, so I in fact did the same with my children. So do you what you like and spin this to new moms. Doesn’t matter an infant doesn’t know the difference between formula or a tiny amount a rice added. Not like it’s a heavy amount. They don’t grow up lazy eaters. You are bottle feeding them anyway. What your saying is if you add rice they become lazy bad eaters so they will order a cheeseburger through a straw as an adult. Problem with society these days is all this reasearch scare tactic BS. FACT, my children are not obese. All my children are skinny and tall. It’s genetics, that’s what determines our physical traits. The rest is choices, their choices. And they are definitely not thinking back about their bottles when they order cheeseburgers. We all have no memories of our own infancy. It’s how you feed them as toddlers and teens. If you keep Little Debbie’s and chips instead of apples and raisins as snacks of course this makes a difference in your child’s weight. Common sense. So stop scaring new moms. You stay up with their newborns all night. You raise them!! Pretty sure I could write a few articles or books of my own and post it and call it research I have 5 children. Youngest is 2 oldest is 23. They are all perfectly fine. And I was taught by my mother who was taught by her mother and so on. Not as the research said. Please!!

Hi Rebecca,

I’m the co-founder of DrGreene.com and Dr. Greene’s wife.

So glad your kids don’t have weight issues. Agree on Little Debbie’s and chips. That’s a huge problem, as are soft drinks and the general lack of vegetables in kids’ diets.

There is a lot of science around not feeding babies rice cereal in their bottles or with a spoon. If you’re interested in the science, you can read about it here.

Best, @MsGreene
Note: I am the co-founder of DrGreene.com, but I am not Dr. Greene and I am not a doctor. Please keep that in mind when reading my comments and replies.

I agree. My children are 13, 7 and 1 month old. The rules for rice cereal has changed dramatically. I gave my 13 & 7 y/o rice cereal at 1 month. I will say that they both do not crave candy and sweets like most children. They prefer veggies and fruits. They are also not overweight. Occasionally we eat out and they’d rather have a home cooked meal. None of my children have allergies and are very healthy. I would say our weight comes from how we’re raised and what parents will allow and give in to for their children. A lot of mothers now a days are too consumed with themselves that they will find a quick fix like McDonald’s. I totally disagree with this article. As a parent it’s a simple no you can’t have that and monitoring what the eat. We are quick to blame things on something we have no information for. EveryBODY is different.

Hi Janice,

Dr. Greene has written a White Paper about this. Here are his citations:

i Committee on Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity; Food and Nutrition Board; Institute of Medicine. Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? 2007
ii McKeown NM, Meigs JB, Liu S, Saltzman E, Wilson PW, Jacques PF. Carbohydrate Nutrition, Insulin Resistance, and the Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Diabetes Care. 2004 Feb;27(2):538-546.
iii The Writing Group for the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group. “Incidence of Diabetes in Youth in the United States.” JAMA 2007, 297, pp. 2716-2724.
iv US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. Jan 31 2011. Page 46.
v Birch, L. L., Shoba, B. C., Pirok, E., and Steinberg, L. “What Kind of Exposure Reduces Children’s Food Neophobia? Looking vs. Tasting?” Appetite, 1987, 9: 171–178.
vi Roach, H. I., “Epigenetic Aspects of Chronic Diseases” Springer, 1st Edition (Apr 19 2011) Chapter 13, Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Developmental Origins of Adult Disease.
vii Greene, A. R. Feeding Baby Green: The Earth-Friendly Program for Healthy, Safe Nutrition during Pregnancy, Childhood and Beyond. Jossey-Bass 2009.
viii J. Wardle, S. Sanderson, E. L. Gibson, and L. Rapoport.” Factor-analytic structure of food preferences in four-year-old children in the UK”. Appetite. (2001) 37: 217-223.
ix G.A. Falciglia and P.A. Norton, Evidence for a genetic influence on preference for some foods, J Am Diet Assoc 94 (1994), pp. 154–158.
x J. A. Mennella. Genetic and environmental determinants of bitter perception and sweet preferences Pediatrics – 01-FEB-2005; 115(2): e216-22.
xi Fabsitz, R. R., Garrison, R. J., Feinleib, M., and Hjortland, M. “A Twin Analysis of Dietary Intake: Evidence for a Need to Control for Possible Environmental Differences in MZ and DZ Twins,” Behavior Genetics, 8, 1978: 15–25.
x Rozin, P. and Millman, L. “Family Environment, Not Heredity, Accounts for Family Resemblances in Food Preferences and Attitudes: A Twin Study.” Appetite, 1987, 8: 125–134.
xi Hikami, K., Hasegawa, Y., and Matsuzawa, T. “Social Transmission of Food Preference in Japanese Monkeys (Macaca fuscata) After Mere Exposure or Aversion Training.” Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1990, 104: 233–237.
Galef, B. G., and Whiskin, E. E. “Socially Transmitted Food Preferences Can Be Used to Study Long-Term Memory in Rats.” Learning & Behavior, 2003, 31: 160–164.
xii M. B. M. van den Bree, et al. “Genetic and environmental influences on eating patterns of twins aged >50 years.” Am J Clin Nutr 1999. 70:456-464.
xiii R. R. Fabsitz, R.J. Garrison, M. Feinleib and M. Hjortland,” A twin analysis of dietary intake: evidence for a need to control for possible environmental differences in MZ and DZ twins,”Behav Genet 8 (1978), pp. 15–25.
xiv L.S. Greene, J.A. Desor and O. Maller, “Heredity and experience: their relative importance in the development of taste preference in man,” J Comp Physiol Psychol 89 (1975), pp. 279–284.
xv M. Krondl, P. Coleman, J. Wade and J. Milner, “A twin study examining the genetic influence on food selection,” Hum Nutr Appl Nutr 37 A (1983), pp. 189–198.
xvi P. Rozin and L. Millman, “Family environment, not heredity, accounts for family resemblances in food preferences and attitudes: a twin study,” Appetite 8 (1987), pp. 125–134.
xvii Beauchamp, G. K., Cowart, B. J., Mennella, J. A., and Marsh, R. R. “Infant Salt Taste: Developmental, Methodological, and Contextual Factors,” Developmental Psychobiology, 1994, 27(6):353–365.
xviii Birch, L. L. “Development of Food Preferences,” Annual Review of Nutrition, 1999, 19:41–62.
xix B.J. Tepper and R.J. Nurse, “Fat perception is related to PROP taster status,” Physiol Behav 61 (1997), pp. 949–954.
xx B. Turnbull and E. Matisoo-Smith, “Taste sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil predicts acceptance of bitter-tasting spinach in 3–6-y-old children,” Am J Clin Nutr 76 (2002), pp. 1101–1105.
xxi Cowart, B. J. “Development of Taste Perception in Humans: Sensitivity and Preference Throughout the Life Span,” Psychological Bulletin, 1981, 90(1): 43–73.
xxii Maier, A., Chabanet, C., Schaal, B., Issanchou, S., Leathwood, P. “Effects of Repeated Exposure on Acceptance of Initially Disliked Vegetables in 7-Month Old Infants.” Food Quality & Preference, 2007, 18: 1023–1032.
xxiii Carruth, B. R., Ziegler, P., Gordon, A., and Barr, S. I. “Prevalence of Picky Eaters Among Infants and Toddlers and Their Caregiver’s Decisions About Offering a Food,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2004, 104: S57–S64.
xxiv Wyrwicka, W. “Social Effects on Development of Food Preferences.” Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 1993, 53: 485–493.
xxv US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. Jan 31 2011. Page 12.
xxvi Simmons, R. “Developmental Origins of Adult Metabolic Disease.” Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America, 2006, 35: 193–204.
xxvii Zambrano, E. et al. “A Low Maternal Protein Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation Has Sex- and Window of Exposure-Specific Effects on Offspring Growth and Food Intake, Glucose Metabolism, and Serum Leptin in the Rat.” Journal of Physiology. 2006, 15, pp. 221-230.
xxviii Ravelli, G.P., Stein, Z.A., Susser, M.W. “Obesity in Young Men After Famine Exposure In Utero and Early Infancy.” New England Journal of Medicine. 1976, 295, pp. 349-353.
xxix Roach, H. I., “Epigenetic Aspects of Chronic Diseases” Springer, 1st Edition (Apr 19 2011) Chapter 13, Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Developmental Origins of Adult Disease.
xxx Bayol, S. A., Simbi, B. H., Bertrand, J.A.B., and Strickland, N. C. “Offspring from Mothers Fed a ‘Junk Food’ Diet in Pregnancy and Lactation Exhibit Exacerbated Adiposity Which Is More Pronounced in Females.” The Journal of Physiology, 2008 DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2008.153817
xxxi Gene expression was changed for IGF-1, IRS-1, VEGF-A, PPARγ, leptin, adiponectin, adipsin, LPL, Glut 1, and Glut 3.
xxxii Sun Q, Spiegelman D, van Dam RM, Holmes MD, Malik VS, Willett WC, and Hu FB. “White Rice, Brown Rice, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women. Archives of Internal Medicine. June 2010; 170(11):961-969
xxxiii J. A. Mennella, et al.” Infant feeding practices and early flavor experiences in Mexican infants: an intra-cultural study” J Am Diet Assoc – 01-JUN-2005; 105(6): 908-15.
xxxiv Schaal, B., Marlier, L., and Soussignan, R. “Human Foetuses Learn Odours from their Pregnant Mother’s Diet,” Chemical Senses. 2000, 25, pp. 729-737.
xxxv Mennella, J.A., and Beauchamp, G.K. “Understanding the Origen of Flavor Preferences.” Chemical Senses. 2005, 30 Supplement, pp. i242—243.
xxxvi Fox MK, Reidy K, Novak T, Zieglar P. Sources of energy and nutrients in the diets of infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jan; 106(1S):28-42.
xxxvii Fox MK, Pac S, Devaney B, Jankowski L. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: What foods are infants and toddlers eating? J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Jan; 104 (1S):22-30.
xxxviii S. A. Lederman, et al. Summary of the presentation at the conference on preventing childhood obesity, December 8, 2003. Pediatrics. (2004) 114: 1146-1173.
xxxix US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. Jan 31 2011. Page 46.
xl Maria Bailey. Trillion Dollar Moms: Marketing to a New Generation of Mothers. BSM Media. (2006).

Best,
@MsGreene

I am a mother of two(gave both children rice cereal) and of course my daughter is facing this issue with her pediatrician. I do agree that this has been something that has been done for years. Despite your articles on nutrition that you post for reference. Show me the blind study articles, where they have taken a large number of babies, 1/2 given cereal (bottle) and 1/2 not, that have followed these children into their adult lives to prove your theory of obesity. There simply have been no studies of infants to prove this point. Just another example of our text book medical doctors who swear children cant have a fever when they are teething. Yet most of us had fussy, low fever infants teething. Lets not forget our multitude of pediatricians who for years were over prescribing antibiotics to our children, where does it end. These doctors are not God and are just practicing medicine. My husband to is in the medical field, and like all professions some excel others in their medical skills by leaps and bounds. So shop around, they work for you, your interviewing them to take care of your infant. Interview your doctor!!

Your last name is Greene. Just sayin Mr Greene? Daughter, wife. Maybe? Anyway. I call BS on bottlefed rice. My son recently struggled to gain weight for boot camp joining the marines at 21. Maybe I should have feed him bottled rice again. All my kids had rice in their bottles. My mom taught me rice bottles, so I in fact did the same with my children. So do you what you like and spin this to new moms. Doesn’t matter an infant doesn’t know the difference between formula or a tiny amount a rice added. Not like it’s a heavy amount. They don’t grow up lazy eaters. You are bottle feeding them anyway. What your saying is if you add rice they become lazy bad eaters so they will order a cheeseburger through a straw as an adult. Problem with society these days is all this reasearch scare tactic BS. FACT, my children are not obese. All my children are skinny and tall. It’s genetics, that’s what determines our physical traits. The rest is choices, their choices. And they are definitely not thinking back about their bottles when they order cheeseburgers. We all have no memories of our own infancy. It’s how you feed them as toddlers and teens. If you keep Little Debbie’s and chips instead of apples and raisins as snacks of course this makes a difference in your child’s weight. Common sense. So stop scaring new moms. You stay up with their newborns all night. You raise them!! Pretty sure I could write a few articles or books of my own and post it and call it research I have 5 children. Youngest is 2 oldest is 23. They are all perfectly fine. And I was taught by my mother who was taught by her mother and so on. Not as the research said. Please!!

I want you to cite the research for this hypothesis. Our lifestyles have become sedentary and high calorie food is cheap and abundant. But you are saying rice cereal causes obesity? Prove it

Hi Janice,

Dr. Greene has written a White Paper about this. Here are his citations:

i Committee on Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity; Food and Nutrition Board; Institute of Medicine. Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? 2007
ii McKeown NM, Meigs JB, Liu S, Saltzman E, Wilson PW, Jacques PF. Carbohydrate Nutrition, Insulin Resistance, and the Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Diabetes Care. 2004 Feb;27(2):538-546.
iii The Writing Group for the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group. “Incidence of Diabetes in Youth in the United States.” JAMA 2007, 297, pp. 2716-2724.
iv US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. Jan 31 2011. Page 46.
v Birch, L. L., Shoba, B. C., Pirok, E., and Steinberg, L. “What Kind of Exposure Reduces Children’s Food Neophobia? Looking vs. Tasting?” Appetite, 1987, 9: 171–178.
vi Roach, H. I., “Epigenetic Aspects of Chronic Diseases” Springer, 1st Edition (Apr 19 2011) Chapter 13, Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Developmental Origins of Adult Disease.
vii Greene, A. R. Feeding Baby Green: The Earth-Friendly Program for Healthy, Safe Nutrition during Pregnancy, Childhood and Beyond. Jossey-Bass 2009.
viii J. Wardle, S. Sanderson, E. L. Gibson, and L. Rapoport.” Factor-analytic structure of food preferences in four-year-old children in the UK”. Appetite. (2001) 37: 217-223.
ix G.A. Falciglia and P.A. Norton, Evidence for a genetic influence on preference for some foods, J Am Diet Assoc 94 (1994), pp. 154–158.
x J. A. Mennella. Genetic and environmental determinants of bitter perception and sweet preferences Pediatrics – 01-FEB-2005; 115(2): e216-22.
xi Fabsitz, R. R., Garrison, R. J., Feinleib, M., and Hjortland, M. “A Twin Analysis of Dietary Intake: Evidence for a Need to Control for Possible Environmental Differences in MZ and DZ Twins,” Behavior Genetics, 8, 1978: 15–25.
x Rozin, P. and Millman, L. “Family Environment, Not Heredity, Accounts for Family Resemblances in Food Preferences and Attitudes: A Twin Study.” Appetite, 1987, 8: 125–134.
xi Hikami, K., Hasegawa, Y., and Matsuzawa, T. “Social Transmission of Food Preference in Japanese Monkeys (Macaca fuscata) After Mere Exposure or Aversion Training.” Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1990, 104: 233–237.
Galef, B. G., and Whiskin, E. E. “Socially Transmitted Food Preferences Can Be Used to Study Long-Term Memory in Rats.” Learning & Behavior, 2003, 31: 160–164.
xii M. B. M. van den Bree, et al. “Genetic and environmental influences on eating patterns of twins aged >50 years.” Am J Clin Nutr 1999. 70:456-464.
xiii R. R. Fabsitz, R.J. Garrison, M. Feinleib and M. Hjortland,” A twin analysis of dietary intake: evidence for a need to control for possible environmental differences in MZ and DZ twins,”Behav Genet 8 (1978), pp. 15–25.
xiv L.S. Greene, J.A. Desor and O. Maller, “Heredity and experience: their relative importance in the development of taste preference in man,” J Comp Physiol Psychol 89 (1975), pp. 279–284.
xv M. Krondl, P. Coleman, J. Wade and J. Milner, “A twin study examining the genetic influence on food selection,” Hum Nutr Appl Nutr 37 A (1983), pp. 189–198.
xvi P. Rozin and L. Millman, “Family environment, not heredity, accounts for family resemblances in food preferences and attitudes: a twin study,” Appetite 8 (1987), pp. 125–134.
xvii Beauchamp, G. K., Cowart, B. J., Mennella, J. A., and Marsh, R. R. “Infant Salt Taste: Developmental, Methodological, and Contextual Factors,” Developmental Psychobiology, 1994, 27(6):353–365.
xviii Birch, L. L. “Development of Food Preferences,” Annual Review of Nutrition, 1999, 19:41–62.
xix B.J. Tepper and R.J. Nurse, “Fat perception is related to PROP taster status,” Physiol Behav 61 (1997), pp. 949–954.
xx B. Turnbull and E. Matisoo-Smith, “Taste sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil predicts acceptance of bitter-tasting spinach in 3–6-y-old children,” Am J Clin Nutr 76 (2002), pp. 1101–1105.
xxi Cowart, B. J. “Development of Taste Perception in Humans: Sensitivity and Preference Throughout the Life Span,” Psychological Bulletin, 1981, 90(1): 43–73.
xxii Maier, A., Chabanet, C., Schaal, B., Issanchou, S., Leathwood, P. “Effects of Repeated Exposure on Acceptance of Initially Disliked Vegetables in 7-Month Old Infants.” Food Quality & Preference, 2007, 18: 1023–1032.
xxiii Carruth, B. R., Ziegler, P., Gordon, A., and Barr, S. I. “Prevalence of Picky Eaters Among Infants and Toddlers and Their Caregiver’s Decisions About Offering a Food,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2004, 104: S57–S64.
xxiv Wyrwicka, W. “Social Effects on Development of Food Preferences.” Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 1993, 53: 485–493.
xxv US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. Jan 31 2011. Page 12.
xxvi Simmons, R. “Developmental Origins of Adult Metabolic Disease.” Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America, 2006, 35: 193–204.
xxvii Zambrano, E. et al. “A Low Maternal Protein Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation Has Sex- and Window of Exposure-Specific Effects on Offspring Growth and Food Intake, Glucose Metabolism, and Serum Leptin in the Rat.” Journal of Physiology. 2006, 15, pp. 221-230.
xxviii Ravelli, G.P., Stein, Z.A., Susser, M.W. “Obesity in Young Men After Famine Exposure In Utero and Early Infancy.” New England Journal of Medicine. 1976, 295, pp. 349-353.
xxix Roach, H. I., “Epigenetic Aspects of Chronic Diseases” Springer, 1st Edition (Apr 19 2011) Chapter 13, Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Developmental Origins of Adult Disease.
xxx Bayol, S. A., Simbi, B. H., Bertrand, J.A.B., and Strickland, N. C. “Offspring from Mothers Fed a ‘Junk Food’ Diet in Pregnancy and Lactation Exhibit Exacerbated Adiposity Which Is More Pronounced in Females.” The Journal of Physiology, 2008 DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2008.153817
xxxi Gene expression was changed for IGF-1, IRS-1, VEGF-A, PPARγ, leptin, adiponectin, adipsin, LPL, Glut 1, and Glut 3.
xxxii Sun Q, Spiegelman D, van Dam RM, Holmes MD, Malik VS, Willett WC, and Hu FB. “White Rice, Brown Rice, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Men and Women. Archives of Internal Medicine. June 2010; 170(11):961-969
xxxiii J. A. Mennella, et al.” Infant feeding practices and early flavor experiences in Mexican infants: an intra-cultural study” J Am Diet Assoc – 01-JUN-2005; 105(6): 908-15.
xxxiv Schaal, B., Marlier, L., and Soussignan, R. “Human Foetuses Learn Odours from their Pregnant Mother’s Diet,” Chemical Senses. 2000, 25, pp. 729-737.
xxxv Mennella, J.A., and Beauchamp, G.K. “Understanding the Origen of Flavor Preferences.” Chemical Senses. 2005, 30 Supplement, pp. i242—243.
xxxvi Fox MK, Reidy K, Novak T, Zieglar P. Sources of energy and nutrients in the diets of infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Jan; 106(1S):28-42.
xxxvii Fox MK, Pac S, Devaney B, Jankowski L. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: What foods are infants and toddlers eating? J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 Jan; 104 (1S):22-30.
xxxviii S. A. Lederman, et al. Summary of the presentation at the conference on preventing childhood obesity, December 8, 2003. Pediatrics. (2004) 114: 1146-1173.
xxxix US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. Jan 31 2011. Page 46.
xl Maria Bailey. Trillion Dollar Moms: Marketing to a New Generation of Mothers. BSM Media. (2006).

Best,
@MsGreene

Frishta,

Occasionally doctors recommends cereal in the bottle for a very specific reason, such as GERD, but if your doctor has not recommended it AS TREATMENT FOR A CONDITION, Dr. Greene does not recommend cereal (even organic) in a baby’s bottle at any age.

Best,
@MsGreene