Hernia (Inguinal hernia): A-to-Z Guide from Diagnosis to Treatment to Prevention

beautiful newborn. Inguinal hernia.Introduction to hernia inguinal hernia:

Hernias are one of the most common reasons for children to need surgery. Thankfully, the risks today are very low and the results are excellent.

What is it?

Before a baby is born, the testicles and ovaries begin life high in the back of the belly. A band-like cord forms, called the gubernaculum. This attaches to the testicle or ovary on one end, and to the inside of the scrotum or labia on the other end. Slowly, the gubernaculum pulls and guides the testicles down through a tube called the inguinal canal and out into the scrotum (the descent of the testicles). The ovaries also descend, into the pelvis, but they do not exit the abdomen. Then, the slippery inguinal canal closes permanently – the walls fuse together – in the few weeks surrounding birth.

If the canal does not close, the child has an inguinal hernia. The open canal allows some of the intestines to slip through from time to time and create a bulge in the groin.

Who gets it?

Babies who are born prematurely are far more likely to develop hernias than those who are born at term. Boys are also far more likely to have hernias than girls.

Hernias can also run in families. In addition, they are associated with a number of other conditions including undescended testicles, hypospadias, inconspicuous penis, congenital hip dislocation, and cystic fibrosis.

In most children with inguinal hernias, the intestines first squeeze through to create a bulge sometime within the first year (usually the first six months). Sometimes, however, the opening is so small that the bulge does not occur for years. It may even first occur when straining as an adult. In some, a bulge never occurs.

What are the symptoms?

Parents usually notice a lump or bulge in the groin, scrotum, or labia. It may be present only during crying or straining, and disappear when the child is relaxed or asleep. Most of the time this does not cause discomfort. The bulge is noticed during a regular bath time or diaper change.

Occasionally, some of the intestine will get trapped (incarcerated) in the hernia. This causes acute swelling and pain, and must be treated immediately. The child is fussy and may cry without being consolable. There may also be signs of intestinal obstruction, such as vomiting, constipation, and abdominal distension. Sometimes the child is thought to have appendicitis, if the bulge has not yet been discovered. When the incarcerated hernia is identified, usually the intestines can be maneuvered back into the abdomen. Surgery is scheduled for the near future.

If the blood supply to the incarcerated intestine is cut off, the child has a strangulated hernia. The bulge is often red and extremely tender. In addition to the symptoms of incarceration, the child may have a fever and a racing heart rate. This is very uncommon in children, but requires emergency surgery.

Is it contagious?


How long does it last?

An inguinal hernia lasts until it is corrected surgically.

How is it diagnosed?

The diagnosis is often based on the history and physical exam. Sometimes a hernia can be difficult to distinguish from a hydrocele. If the size of the bulge varies significantly from time to time, it is a hernia. If not, time will often clarify the issue (see “hydrocele”).

When girls have hernias, they should be checked to be sure that they have a uterus. Most do, but in rare cases the uterus is absent, because the child is a boy with female external genitalia.

How is it treated?

Inguinal hernias do not go away without treatment. Closing the inguinal canal requires a simple, safe operation. It is usually scheduled as an outpatient procedure soon after the diagnosis (to prevent a possible incarceration). When closed before incarceration, the risks from the hernia itself, or from the surgery or anesthesia, are extremely low.

Incarcerated hernias require emergency treatment.

In general, the results are excellent. The risk of complications is much higher (about 5 percent) if the hernia has become incarcerated before repair. The major complication is damage to the testicles from the incarceration.

How can it be prevented?

Inguinal hernias can be difficult to prevent. Good prenatal care can decrease the risk of prematurity, which can decrease the risk of hernias.

Related concepts:

Incarcerated hernia, Strangulated hernia


Dr. Alan Greene

As a father of four himself, Dr. Greene has devoted himself to freely giving real answers to parents' real questions -- from questions about those all too common childhood conditions to those that address the most recent and rare pediatric illnesses. His answers combine cutting edge science, practical wisdom, warm empathy, and a deep respect for parents, children, and the environment. He is also an electrifying public speaker, and has personally touched many during his talks in North America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

Dr. Greene is a graduate of Princeton University and the University of California at San Francisco. Upon completion of his pediatric residency program at Children's Hospital Medical Center of Northern California he served as Chief Resident. He entered primary care pediatrics in January 1993.

Dr. Greene is the Past President of The Organic Center and on the Board of Directors of Healthy Child Healthy World. He is a founding partner of the Collaborative on Health and the Environment. He also consults for the Environmental Working Group.

In 1995, he launched DrGreene.com, cited by the AMA as “the pioneer physician Web site” on the Internet. His award-winning site has received over 80 million Unique Users from parents, concerned family members, students, and healthcare professionals. In addition to being the founder of DrGreene.com, he is the Medical Director for HealthTap.

In 2010 Dr. Greene founded the WhiteOut Movement to change how babies in the United States are fed. In 2012 he founded TICC TOCC - Transitioning Immediate Cord Clamping To Optimal Cord Clamping. He is also the founder of KidGlyphs, a free iPhone app that provides a tool for young children to express themselves beyond their verbal skills while teaching them important language skills.

Dr. Greene is the Founding President of the Society for Participatory Medicine and has served as both President and Board Chair of Hi-Ethics (Health Internet Ethics. He is on the Board of Directors for Healthy Child Healthy World, The Lunchbox Project, and The Society for Participatory Medicine. He has also served as an advisor to URAC for both their inaugural and their updated health web site accreditation program. He is a founding member of the e-Patient Scholars Working Group, and a founding board member of the Center for Information Therapy.

Dr. Greene is a regular columnist for Parenting Magazine. He is also the Pediatric Expert for The People’s Pharmacy (as heard on NPR) and Healing Quest (seen on PBS stations). He was the original Pediatric Expert for both Yahoo! and iVillage.

Dr. Greene is the author of Feeding Baby Green (Wiley, 2009), Raising Baby Green (Wiley, 2007), From First Kicks to First Steps (McGraw-Hill, 2004), The Parent's Complete Guide to Ear Infections (People's Medical Society, 1997), and a co-author of The A.D.A.M. Illustrated Family Health Guide (A.D.A.M., Inc., 2004). He is the medical expert for three additional books, The Parent's Soup A-to-Z Guide to Your New Baby, (Contemporary Books, 1998) The Parent's Soup A-to-Z Guide to Your Toddler, (Contemporary Books, 1999), and The Mother of All Baby Books, (Hungry Minds, Inc., 2002).

Dr. Greene is a frequent keynote speaker at important events such as Health 2.0 2011 held in San Diego, CA, IFOAM 2008 (International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements), held in Modena Italy, the first European Internet health conference, held in Maastricht, the first International eHealth Association Conference, held in Jeddah, and the largest e-Healthcare World Conference, held in Las Vegas, and the first Green Power Baby Shower, held in Hollywood. Dr. Greene also appears frequently on TV, radio, websites, and in newspapers and magazines around the world, including such venues as the TODAY Show, Good Morning America, Fox and Friends, The Dr. Oz Show, CNN, ABC, CBS, and NBC network news, NPR, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, USA Today, Time Magazine, Parade, Parenting, Child, Baby Talk, Working Mother, Better Home's & Gardens, and the Reader's Digest.

Dr. Greene loves to think about challenging ideas, he enjoys being where nothing manmade can be seen, and he wears green socks.

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