Penis Size Defined

Dr. Greene, my 14-month-old son has a recessed penis. Ever since we had him circumcised, the penis has recessed into a pad of fat surrounding it. In order for it to emerge, we have to push on either side of the pad. Our pediatrician assured us that as he thinned out, it would emerge on its own. This has not occurred and we are worried that part of the circumcision has re-adhered. We have concerns about social, urinary, and erection issues. Please help us. We are having difficulty finding information on this topic. Is there a surgical procedure that would fix this?
Thank you

Penis Size Defined

Dr. Greene’s Answer:

“It’s a boy!”

When we first glimpse our children in the delivery room, their sex is one of the immediate things we notice. It’s also one of the first things we report to family and friends. In the last generation, many of us have seen evidence of our children’s sex on ultrasound even before they were born, but still at the birth, we look to see.

How disconcerting to parents when a boy’s penis seems to disappear, either at birth or shortly thereafter. The good news is that the outlook is bright. Sometimes surgery is needed, sometimes medical treatments, and often nothing at all.

When a penis appears absent or too small, we call the condition inconspicuous penis (Walsh: Campbell’s Urology, 7th ed., W. B. Saunders Company, 1998). I’ve seen this in a great many boys. Several very different situations are lumped into this category. I will describe webbed penis, concealed penis, trapped penis, micropenis, and absent penis.

A webbed penis is a normal-sized penis where the skin of the scrotal sack extends part way up the shaft of the penis. Boys can be born this way, or the condition can result from an over-exuberant circumcision where adhesions form between the scrotal skin and the penile skin. Webbed penis usually causes no problems (unless a routine circumcision is later performed). It is unlikely to get better as the child grows. Results with surgery, however, are excellent. (Casale AJ – Concealed penis in childhood: a spectrum of etiology and treatment. J Urol – 1999 Sep; 162(3 Pt 2): 1165-8).

A concealed penis is a normal-sized penis that lays hidden in the pubic fat pad. This condition is also called buried penis or hidden penis. Some children are born this way, and for some it happens after circumcision. It is common in infants and toddlers, and occasionally seen in older children and obese adolescents. If the penis can be easily exposed by gently pulling on it or by pressing down on the surrounding fat pad, then the situation will usually correct itself over time. Sometimes surgery is needed for concealed penis. Either way, “social, urinary and erection” results are excellent.

A trapped penis is a normal-sized penis that is partially stuck in the pubic fat pad. Children are not born with trapped penis; circumcision causes it. Routine circumcision of a webbed penis or circumcision when there is significant scrotal swelling (from a hydrocele or hernia) can lead to trapped penis. Scarring or adhesions trap the recessed penis in the fat pad. This condition can predispose children to urinary tract infections or urinary retention. Surgery is usually wise.

Male reproductive anatomy

All of the above conditions have a penis of normal size. In determining size, the “stretched penile length” is far more important than the “relaxed length.” To evaluate penis size, stretch the penis gently and measure from the bone at the base all the way to the tip. Be sure to depress the surrounding fat pad to get all the way to the base. Here are the normal values:

Average Stretched Penile Length 
(Adapted from Feldman KW, Smith DW. Journal of Pediatrics. 1975; 86:395):

Normal: Mean +/- 1 SD (inches)
Abnormal: Mean – 2.5 SD (inches)
0-5 months
1.5 +/- 0.3
6-12 months
1.7 +/- 0.3
1-2 years
1.9 +/- 0.3
2-3 years
2.0 +/- 0.4
3-4 years
2.2 +/- 0.4
4-5 years
2.2 +/- 0.4
5-8 years
2.4 +/- 0.4
8-11 years
2.5 +/- 0.4
5.2 +/- 0.6


Micropenis is a penis that is more than 2.5 standard deviations below the average size for age. In a newborn, a stretched penile length less than ¾ inch (1.9 cm) is micropenis.

Micropenis is a hormonal problem that takes place sometime after 14 weeks gestation when the penis has already formed. Hormone levels need to be checked. A boy’s chromosomes should also be checked to see if there is an underlying genetic syndrome. An MRI may be needed to look at the hormone secreting glands. If the penis grows when a 3 month-trial of testosterone is given, the outlook is good for normal adult penis size and function.

If micropenis does not respond to testosterone stimulation, the difficult question of re-assigning gender arises. This decision has been made even more difficult by conflicting and changing recommendations of experts in the field. (Van Wyk JJ, Calikoglu AS, Should boys with micropenis be reared as girls? Journal of Pediatrics, 1999; 134(5)) At one time, gender re-assignment was the routine choice, even though it involves castration, surgical reconstruction, estrogen supplements, and huge emotional issues for the child and family. (Many people based their opinions on the case of a baby boy whose penis was accidentally amputated during circumcision. When he was 22 months old, he was castrated and reassigned a female sex. He had surgery to make his genitals appear female. He was raised as a girl. At puberty, he was given estrogens to promote breast growth. Reports said that he had a very good adjustment to the female sex, but it later became clear that from an early age he had rejected the idea that he was a girl. During his teen years, he insisted on switching back to living as a man. He later married as a man. (Diamond M, Sigmundson HK. Sex reassignment at birth. Long-term review and clinical implications. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1997;151:298-304.) Recent long-term studies of micropenis, though, have found that even if the penis remains small, most boys-raised-as-boys end up as sexually active, heterosexual males who stand to urinate, have a strong male identity, normal erectile function, and who enjoy sex. (Reilly JM, Woodhouse CR. Small penis and the male sexual role. J Urol 1989;142:569-71.) Their partners also report sexual satisfaction. (van Seters AP, Slob AK. Mutually gratifying heterosexual relationship with micropenis of husband. J Sex Marital Ther 1988;14:98-107.) Teasing from peers can be a real problem, though. A penile prosthesis may help.

Adults who have themselves had intersex issues argue strongly against reassignment before the child is old enough to choose. (Van Wyk JJ, Calikoglu AS, Should boys with micropenis be reared as girls? Journal of Pediatrics, May 1999. 134(5).) Their opinion should be listened to carefully.

Absent penis, or penile agenesis, is very rare, occurring in fewer than 1 in 20 million boys. (Gillenwater JW. Adult and Pediatric Urology. Mosby Year Book. 1991.) The scrotum and testicles usually form normally, but the penis doesn’t form at all. A team including a geneticist, endocrinologist, urologist, pediatrician, and mental health experts should be involved.

Many times, I have looked into parents’ worried faces over their son’s inconspicuous penis. When a boy has an inconspicuous penis, the parents’ concerns are quite understandable. The penis should be promptly examined and measured, and the parents should be clearly told whether it is normally formed and of normal size. Whenever any question remains, a pediatric urologist is the best person to evaluate the penis and recommend a plan. Consulting a urologist is all the more appropriate when new concerns arise as the boy grows.

Dr. Alan Greene

Dr. Greene is the founder of (cited by the AMA as “the pioneer physician Web site”), a practicing pediatrician, father of four, & author of Raising Baby Green & Feeding Baby Green. He appears frequently in the media including such venues as the The New York Times, the TODAY Show, Good Morning America, & the Dr. Oz Show.

  1. Worried mam

    i am worried that my 11 year old son has a problem with his penis, you can’t see it unless you pull the skin back BUT he is circumcised. My husband reckons it will correct itself but I can’t help but think there’s more to it……I also feel that his circumcision wasn’t done correctly as he still has a bit of skin around his penis and when it’s pulled back you can then see his penis.

    • I’d schedule an appointment for a physical exam with his pediatrician. At his age, the pediatrician will likely ask you to leave the room for the exam. Be sure to mention your concern before you go, or better yet, talk to your pediatrician before the appointment and tell him your concern when your son is not able to hear the conversation. There’s no need to suggest your concern to your son, but he deserves to be checked. If your current pediatrician isn’t concerned, get a second opinion just to be sure.

  2. Simone

    Good Day,

    Is it possible for my baby’s penis to grow closed. When he was smaller nurses told me not to pull back the foreskin and now I see that the tip of the penis is not a very pinkish colour. Its hard to pull the skin away and expose the penis. Is surgery needed or can I help him at home?

  3. pam

    Hi there,

    I am very worried mom. My elder son is 4.8 years old and weighs about 22kg. His penis size before erection is half inch and after erection is 1.1 inch. I know this is small Is it micro-penis? Will face difficulty in his sex life?

  4. Lisa

    Dr. Greene,

    My son is 7 months old and when I push the skin back, his penis is still less than an inch. It’s maybe 2 cm. :/ I switched pediatricians because the first one told me he had a small penis and joked about it. I was mortified. I want to make sure my son is okay and make sure he does not need hormone therapy or anything like that. Could you please direct me to a doctor in the New York area. I live in Nassau County on Long Island. Thank you in advance for any advice you can provide.

    Best regards,

  5. Jay

    My son is almost 5 months old. He has a big penis. Its like the size of a 3 yrs old. I noticed it after circumcision. Should I be worried?

  6. KLEE

    My son was the same as yours at that age and I had the pediatrician put a referral in for an endocrinologist. The endocrinologist gave him a testosterone shot which helped.

  7. WorriedMom

    My son is almost 8 years old but I am worried whenever I see his penis seems buried especially after taking his shower. Whenever I asked him to stretch the skin down ( he is not circumcised yet) it was like less than 2 inches or about 3 cm only. He is kind of big for his age and weighs 90 pounds and height is 4 feet and 3 inches. I asked his pediatrician when he was 6 years , he said it was normal. How come it seems remain the same length since he was 6 years old?

    • Dad of five

      Your son is a normal height for his age, but he is quite overweight. An 8 year old should be between 50 and 65 lbs, on average. To get an accurate penis measurement on him, the fat pad around his penis needs to be gently pushed back, and you need to measure his penis length while gently stretching it. Make sure you actually measure and don’t just guess. His stretched penis length should be at least 2 inches long.

      The best way is to have him lay on his back, take a ruler, hold it at the base of his penis, and gently push the ruler against the fat pad at the root of his penis. With your other hand, gently stretch his penis while keeping it straight and up against the ruler, and you will have the measurement. 2.5 inches long is about average for his age.

      If you are not comfortable doing this, have his pediatrician do it. I’m sure he would be more comfortable having this done at home though. Just be reassuring and positive. Measuring without stretching is pointless, for example, if he is cold after showering there can be temporary shrinkage. A boy’s penis does not grow much at all between age 5 and age 11 or so, till puberty kicks in. Maybe about 1/4 of an inch, is all. So you may not notice any growth till he hits puberty. Hope that helps, keep us updated. Though I’m sure he is developing ok. Its good to make sure for his sake.

      • Cristina

        What would you say is the average size for a 4 year old.

        • Per the chart above, the average size for a four year old is 2.2 inches.

  8. Tazz

    Im worried about my son…he is now 21! he was circumcised at 2 year old due to his penis ballooning every time he wee’d. The doctor told me it would develop with age and puberty but this has not happened :-(. I have seen my son in the shower and am extremely embarrassed for him, I would never mention it to him as he already has issues. He has never mentioned it to me either. am struggling with what to do…I know this is having a huge impact on my sons life he is extremely angry, and I know a lot of his anger is down to his willy. How can I approach this??

  9. my son is 7 yrs old. i don’t see his penis dangling.i am really worried for his penile growth.he is overweight.plz help me overcome my anxiety…


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