Dr. Greene, my 7-week-old son hasn’t pooped in three days. All he gets is breast milk. Is this normal? Is he constipated? I’ve heard both. If he is constipated, what should I do? Sometimes he acts like he’s about to poop, his face gets red and he strains, but nothing comes out. Otherwise he’s fine — including his nursing. Thanks in advance.
Dr. Greene’s Answer:
As long as your son is in diapers, every single poop will be right there for you to see when the diaper is changed. During these years, the stools undergo several changes. The first poops are the thick, sticky, tarry meconium stools that consist partly of old skin cells that are shed and then swallowed while the baby is still inside you. During the first week these give way, in breast-fed babies, to soft, yellow, breast-milk stools. These usually look like yellow mustard with little seeds. By the time a baby is one week old, he has an average of 8 to 10 of these pleasant (as stools go) stools each day.
You can imagine that if these were 8 to 10 stinky stools, or if even the pleasant (as stools go) stools kept up at this pace, changing diapers would get real old real fast.
For most breast-fed babies, the number drops to about 4 per day by 4 weeks old (although many kids have a different pattern). Formula-fed babies usually stool less often at this age, and the stools do not change much with time until solid foods are introduced (because unlike breast milk, formula doesn’t change over time). Formula-fed stools are often tan or yellow at this stage, and a little firmer than breast-milk stools. For any baby, tan, yellow, green, or brown stools can all be normal. By 8 weeks old, the average drops to 1 per day. Most formula-fed babies will not go less often than daily, but many breast-fed kids will poop even less often than this. I know many babies who only go every three days. If a happy formula-fed baby goes 4 days, or a breast-fed baby goes 7 days without a stool, I recommend that he or she be checked once by a pediatrician. If the child seems to be in pain, has vomiting, or has blood in the stool, he should be seen by the pediatrician immediately. Otherwise, it can be completely normal to go only once every eight days — as long as the stool is soft when it comes out. Breast milk is an amazing food that leaves very little in the way of waste.
Babies will strain from time to time to move the stool along through the intestines. If you want to do something when babies grunt, push, or strain, try picking them up to get gravity to help them in their efforts, or try holding the knees against the chest to help them “squat” — the natural poop position. Straining is usually normal. Crying while straining may be a sign of constipation.
When a child is constipated, the stool in the intestines has backed up more than it should. What “more than it should” means varies depending on the age of the child and the diet. The longer stool sits in the colon, the more water is absorbed back into the body. When a child is constipated the stool tends to be hard, and passing it tends to be painful.
Stool that is hard (firmer than peanut butter) or foul smelling (you’ll know) in a child who has not yet had solid foods may represent something as simple as needing more to drink (espe