Type 2 diabetes

Alternative Names

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes – type 2; Adult-onset diabetes

Definition of Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Diabetes is caused by a problem in the way your body makes or uses insulin. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells, where it is stored and later used for energy.

Symptoms

Often, people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all. If you do have symptoms, they may include:

Signs and tests

Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed with the following blood tests:

Treatment

The immediate goal of treatment is to lower high blood glucose levels. The long-term goals of treatment are to prevent diabetes-related complications.

Expectations (prognosis)

The risk of long-term complications from diabetes can be reduced. If you control your blood glucose and blood pressure, you can reduce your risk of death, stroke, heart failure, and other complications. Reduction of HbA1c by even 1% can decrease your risk for complications by 25%.

Review

Ari S. Eckman, MD, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc. – 5/10/2010

Diabetes and exercise
Diabetic emergency supplies
Low blood sugar symptoms
15/15 rule
Starchy foods
Glucose in blood
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
Biguanides
Sulfonylureas drug
Thiazolidinediones
Food and insulin release
Monitor blood glucose - series

ADAM Medical Encyclopedia

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