Type 1 diabetes

Alternative Names

Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes – type 1

Definition of Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to properly control blood sugar levels.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

There are several forms of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes. Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults.

Symptoms

Some people will have no symptoms before they are diagnosed with diabetes.

Signs and tests

Diabetes is diagnosed with the following blood tests:

Treatment

The immediate goals of treatment are to treat diabetic ketoacidosis and high blood glucose levels. Because type 1 diabetes can come on suddenly and the symptoms can be severe, newly diagnosed people may need to stay in the hospital.

Expectations (prognosis)

Diabetes is a lifelong disease for which there is not yet a cure. However, the outcome for people with diabetes varies. Studies show that tight control of blood glucose can prevent or delay complications to the eyes, kidneys, nervous system, and heart in type 1 diabetes. However, complications may occur even in those with good diabetes control.

Review

Ari S. Eckman, MD, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc. – 5/10/2010

Endocrine glands
Insulin pump
Glucose test
Insulin pump
Type I diabetes
Monitor blood glucose - series

ADAM Medical Encyclopedia

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